Lesson 4 Section 2 The Meaning of PercentThe student should first understand Section 1: Multiplying and Dividing by Powers of 10. 



100% , then, means 100 for each 100, which is all. 100% of 12 is 12. 50% is another way of saying half because 50% means 50 for each 100, which is half. 50% of 12 is 6. A percent means how many for each 100. Example 1. Below are 100 small squares, and 32 have been shaded. What percent of the squares have been shaded? Answer. 32%  32 for each 100. If we think of a quantity being divided into one hundred equal parts, that is, into hundredths, then a percent is a number of hundredths. 32% is 32 hundredths. When the percent is less than or equal to 100%, then we can say "out of" 100. 32% is 32 out of 100. But to say that 200% is 200 out of 100 makes no sense. 200% is 200 for each 100, which is to say, twice as much. 200% of 12 is 24. Example 2. 100 people were surveyed, and 65 responded Yes. What percent responded Yes? Answer. 65%  65 out of 100. Example 3. In a class of 30 students, all 30 came to school by bus. What percent came to school by bus? Answer. 100%. 100% means all. (30 out of 30 is equivalent to 100 out of 100.) 



We will see that if a number is divided into equal parts, then we can know how many there are in each part Example 4.
Example 5. How much is 1% of $400? How much is 2% of $400? How much is 3%? How much is 9%? Answer. 1% of $400 is $4.00. Separate two decimal digits. Now, 2% is twice as much as 1%. Therefore 2% of $400 is $8. 3% is $12. 4% would be $16. 9%, therefore, is 9 × $4 = $36. Example 6. How much is 8% of $600? Answer. Since 1% is $6.00, then 8% is 8 × $6.00 = $48.00. Example 7. How much is 2% of $325? How much is 3%? 4%? Answer. We can get everything from 1%, which is $3.25. 2%, therefore, is $6.50. 3% is $9.75. And 4% is 4 × $3.25 = 4 × $3 + 4 × $.25 = $12 + $1 = $13. These are problems that do not require a calculator. The student should practice them mentally 



Example 8.
Taking both 10% and 1% in this way takes advantage of our decimal system and its positional numeration. Example 9. How much is 20% of $80? How much is 30%? How much is 90% Answer. 20% is twice as much as 10%. Since 10% of $80 is $8, then 20% is 2 × $8 = $16. 30% is 3 × $8 = $24. 90% is 9 × $8 = $72. See especially Problem 23 at the end of the Lesson. (In Lesson 16, Question 12, we will see that 5% is half of 10%, and so it will be very easy to take 5%. We will then see that 15% is 10% plus 5%) The next step in understanding percent is knowing what it means to say that they are parts of 100%. Since 50% is half of 100%, then 50% means half. Since 25% is a quarter of 100%, 25% means a quarter. 20% means a fifth. And so on: Lesson 15. To prepare for this next skill, can you name the powers of 10 backwards, starting with One million? To see the answer, pass your mouse over the colored area. One million, hundred thousand, ten thousand, one thousand, hundred, ten, one. Example 10. How much is 1% of One million? Answer. To take 1%, we must divide by 100. But to do that, we can divide by 10 twice  and that will take us two powers of 10 less: Hundred thousand, Ten thousand. Example 11. How much is 6% of One million dollars? Answer. Since 1% is Ten thousand dollars, then 6% is 6 times Ten thousand dollars, which is Sixty thousand dollars. Example 12. How much is 3% of Ninety thousand dollars? Answer. First, 1% is two powers of 10 less: Nine hundred dollars. Therefore 3% is Twentyseven hundred dollars. Example 13. How much is 8% of Three million dollars? Answer. Since 10% is Three hundred thousand dollars, then 8% is a bit less: Two hundred forty thousand dollars. Topics in percent continue in Lessons 15, 16, 17, and 28. * Now a percent is not a number. Rather, it expresses a relationship between numbers. What percent  what relationship  has 6 to 12? 



(This is often called changing a percent to a decimal.) 24% = .24 Divide by 100 separate two decimal digits. Division by 100 is indicated by the percent sign itself %, with its division slash / and two 0's. Here are more examples:
Inversely: 



Example 14.
Number to a Percent .24 = 24% Percent to a Number Please "turn" the page and do some Problems or Continue on to the Section 3: or Go on to the next Lesson. Introduction  Home  Table of Contents Copyright © 2019 Lawrence Spector Questions or comments? Email: themathpage@yandex.com Private tutoring available. 